About ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group

    The evolution of the I.C.A.Z. Fish Remains working group
                        from 1981 to 1995

                      ARTURO MORALES MUNIZ

               (From Archaeofauna 5 (1996): 13-20)

           Laboratorio Arqueozoologia. Depto. Biologia
      Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. 28049 Madrid, Espana

On the morning of the 28th of August, 1981, the founders of what 
was later to become the I.C.A.Z. Fish Remains Working Group 
(FRWG) met for the first time at the Zoological Museum of 
Copenhagen. The meeting, attended by 16 people (Table 1), took 
place at the request of a small group of scholars, notable among 
which were Inge Bodker and Knud Rosenlund of the host 
institution, which had for years felt the need for a more 
systematic analysis of fish bones retrieved (and often missed!) 
in archaeological sediments.

In retrospective, we can say that the Copenhagen Meeting was a 
truly productive one, both in terms of the nature (Appendix 1) 
and the treatment of issues. Introductory lectures were followed 
by a lengthy discussion open to all participants; such flexible, 
seminar-like contributions were regrettably lost in subsequent 
meetings, partly due to the drastic increase in the number of 
presentations. To compensate for this, starting with the second 
meeting, contributions became grouped into sessions of more or 
less similar content (Appendix 2). This arrangement was enhanced 
after the Stora Korno Meeting allowing the organizers to set up 
prioritary topics for each conference, but we had to wait until 
this past conference to watch one of the prioritary subjects 
(i.e., overfishing in the archaeological record) develop into a 
significant portion of the conference.

The main goal of the Copenhagen meeting has, nevertheless, been 
maintained over the years. This was the participants' 
determination to create a true (and not just nominal!) working 
group, which encourages close contact among its members, and 
which would not only hold biennial meetings, but would also 
disseminate the information presented to the best of its ability 
while promoting contact with other groups, organisations and 
individuals both within and outside I.C.A.Z. The success of the 
<>, 14 years after its inception, has been 
so dramatic that it became a model for other Working Groups (in 
particular the Middle East and Bird Remains WG) and, perhaps, in 
the future, may pave the way as a model for a federal re-
structuring of I.C.A.Z., which is undergoing a profound process 
of renewal at this very moment.

Turning to more mundane matters, the development of the FRWG 
seems to have been a mixture of gradual and punctuated processes 
(Table 1; Figure 1). After the initial Copenhagen <>, a 
second one exemplified by the Sophia Antipolis and Groningen 
conferences doubled the number of attendants and tripled the 
number of presentations (Appendix 2 & 3). The third pulse, 
starting with the York meeting and still ongoing, exhibited a 
gradual increase in the number of attendants doubling the number 
of contributions (Appendixes 4-7). One might argue that both the 
Leuven and Madrid meetings, by their sheer size, could be 
considered as a fourth incremental pulse but we would rather 
consider them from the perspective that the FRWG has not yet 
stabilized, but is simply gaining momentum, due to its dynamic 
nature and the decisiveness of its members.

Since one of the aims of the FRWG was to create a forum of 
debate for the discussion and standarization of techniques, 
presentations of methods have always made up a substantial 
portion of the contributions offered at each meeting (Table 2; 
Figure 2). The Copenhagen conference, as a matter of fact, was 
basically conceived as a colloquium on methods (Appendix 1) and, 
except for the Groningen, Schleswig and Leuven meetings, 
methodological papers always ranked at the top of the list of 
topics (Figure 2; Table 2; Appendixes 1-7). A pervasive pattern 
throughout these years has been the somewhat erratic rise in 
contributions which were neither methodological nor descriptive 
<> (i.e., the <> category in Figure and 
Table 2). Most contributions in this category are papers: a) 
dealing with fishing in the past, b) regional surveys; and c) the 
biology of fishes. By their very nature, a great many of these 
contributions include data from fields alien to archaeozoology 
and their progressive importance in succesive meetings testifies 
to the growing interdisciplinarity within archaeoichthyology as 
well as the willingness of the FRWG to incorporate new ideas, 
data and scholars.

Meetings of the FRWG have also been witness to important 
developments. One such instance was the Sophia Antipolis 
conference where Jean Desse presented a much needed initiative: 
the <> Project. Since then, the program has developed 
well beyond the realm of archaeoichthyology reaching rechearches 
in I.C.A.Z. and the natural sciences. At Copenhagen it was 
decided that the group should have a Newletter. Through the 
years, thanks to the generous and anonymous effort of its 
editors, Knud Rosenlund and Dirk Heinrich, the Newsletter has 
been instrumental in keeping the FRWG alive and in promoting 
joint research among its members (note how many papers from later 
meetings have been presented by research teams from more than one 

I strongly believe that the most remarkable aspect of all these 
achievements, which include the publication of the proceedings 
from all but one meeting by relevant publishers (CNRS, BAR, Offa, 
etc.), is the fact that they were achieved in an atmosphere of 
honest friendship. The FRWG has never had individual leadership, 
strong hierarchy or the like. It has never felt the temptation of 
pulling out or taking over anything. It simply does not need to 
do that to keep on being what it is, namely, a united and 
cohesive group of friends. That cohesiveness is the secret of its 
strength. No more, no less (but by no means a modest 

To conclude, I look to the future and I want to draw attention 
to the single criticism of the FRWG: its eurocentrism. For 
historical reasons, the fish group was born in Europe (though one 
of the <>, the late Hanan Lernau, was Israeli!) 
and the number of European members has traditionally outnumbered 
those from other continents (in the latest 4 newsletters we 
record 87 from Europe, 41 from the Americas, 6 from Asia, 1 from 
Africa and 4 from Australia and the Pacific). Logistics, in 
particular shortage of funds, have shaped a profound and, to a 
certain extent, unfair, asymmetry: all eight meetings have been 
held in Europe. This has prevented a lot of colleagues within the 
FRWG from attending even a single meeting. At this meeting 
Elisabeth Reitz and Elisabeth Wing were prevented from attending 
at the last minute but, at least, we can feel proud that many 
Americans and even Foss Leach and Atholl Anderson, from our 
Spanish antipodes, could finally make it. On the horizon we have 
Panama. The 1997 meeting will hopefully constitute a landmark for 
the FRWG which is dangerously leaning into an strictly EFRWG 
(i.e., european FRWG) much to my general regret. I therefore want 
to end these remarks by telling all our non-European friends: 
come'n boys, it's your turn now! Happy meeting! Thank you!

APPENDIX 1: FIRST MEETING, Kobenhavn (1981) (28-29 August)

1.   A. K. G. JONES: Reconstruction of fishing techniques from 
     assemblages of fish bones.
2.   R. LIL JEGREN: Taphonomy.
3.   J. DESSE: Presentation of a new method of discrimination by 
     x-ray diagnostics.
4.   D. HEINRICH: Standardization of measurements and size/weight 
     reconstructions of fish.
5.   N. NOE-NYGAARD: Use of growth rings to determine age of fish 
     and season of catch.
6.   H. LERNAU: Fish remains from excavations in the Negev and 
     the Sinai deserts and their connection with the Nile, the 
     Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
7.   H. LERNAU: Special methods for defining vertebrae of bony 
     and cartilaginous fish.

APPENDIX 2: SECOND MEETING, Valbonne (1983) (14-16 October)
1.   F. J. MEUNIER: Sur la determination histologique de 
     vertebres de poissons trouvees dans les sites 
2.   G. DESSE: Nouvelle contribution a la diagnose des pieces 
     rachidiennes des poissons.
3.   A. MORALES MUNIZ: A study on the representativity and 
     taxonomy of the fish faunas from two mousterian sites on 
     northern Spain with special reference to the trout (Salmo 
     trutta L., 1758).
4.   A. K. G. JONES: Some effects of the mammalian digestive 
     system on fish bones.
5.   J. DESSE: Propositions pour une realisation collective d'un 
     corpus: fiches d'identification et d'exploitation metrique 
     du squelette des poissons.
6.   O. LE GALL: L'exploitation de l'ichtyofaune par les 
     Paleolithiques. Quelques exemples.
7.   N. JUAN-MUNS: Le probleme de la signifaction des restes 
     ichtyofauniques fossiles.
8.   S. M. COLLEY: Some methodological problems in the 
     interpretation of fish remains from archaeological sites in 
9.   T. TROLLE-LASSEN: A preliminary report on the archaeological 
     and zoological evidence of fish exploitation from a 
     submerged site in mesolithic Denmark.
10.  K. ROSENLUND: The fish-bone material from a medieval Danish 
     monastery and an 18th century mission station in Greenland. 
     An investigation of materials with a known key.
11.  W. VAN NEER: The use of fish remains in African 
12.  E.S. WING: Faunal remains from seven sites in the Big 
     Cypress national preserve.
13.  J. RIVALLAIN: L'importance de la peche dans les activites 
     littorales du passe des Alladian, Cote d'Ivoire.
14.  A. BOISSIER: Un habitat et un mode de vie traditionnels a 
     l'etang de Salses (P.O., France). Exemples ethnographiques 
     et implication archeologique.
15.  N. NOE-NYGAARD: Seasonality determination, a tool in 
     separating fish accumulations of mixed origin on Mesolithic 
     island sites.
16.  J. RICHTER: Indication of selection of different fish 
     species at various seasons in the Neolithic.
17.  M. S. GORECKI: Determination des temperatures de 
     developement durant le cycle de vie de certains poissons 
     pour la mesure des rapports d'oxygene isotopique dans les 
18.  P. LAHTIPERA: Measurements of Gadidae; problems and 
19.  M. LERNAU: Nouvelles techniques de preparation et de 
     rangement des collections de reference.

APPENDIX 3: THIRD MEETING, Groningen (1985)
1.   A. T. CLASON: Fish and Archaeology.
2.   N. BENECKE: Some remakrs on sturgeon fishing in the Southern 
     Baltic region in Medieval times.
3.   D. C. BRINKHUIZEN: Features observed on the skeletons of 
     some recent European Acipenseridae: their importance for the 
     study of excavated remains of sturgeon.
4.   S. M. COLLEY: Site formation and archaeological fish 
     remains. An ethnohistorical example from the Northern Isles, 
5.   D. HEINRICH: Fishing and consumption of Cod (Gadus morhua 
     Linnaeus, 1758) in the Middle Ages.
6.   A. K. G. JONES: Fish bone survival in the digestive systems 
     of the pig, dog and man: some experiments.
7.   L. JONSSON: Fish bones in Late Mesolithic human graves at 
     Skateholm, Scania, South Sweden.
8.   A. LENTACKER: Archaeozoology of Late Prehistoric Portuguese 
     sites with marine and riverine resources.
9.   H. LERNAU: Fish bones excavated in two Late Roman-Byzantine 
     Castella in the southern desert of Israel.
10.  W. VAN NEER: Some notes on the fish remains from Wadi 
     Kubbaniya (Upper Egypt; Late Palaeolithic).
11.  W. PRUMMEL: The presence of bones of eel, Anguilla anguilla, 
     in relation to taphonomic processes, cultural factors and 
     the abundance of eel.
12.  K. ROSENLUND: The sting ray, Dasyatis pastinaca (L.) in 
13.  M. SEEMAN: Fish remains from Smeerenburg, a 17th century 
     Dutch whaling station on the Westcoast of Spitsbergen.
14.  J. DESSE: Les poissons du Grand Louvre.
15.  I. BODKER-ENGHOFF: New results from the classical shell 
     midden in Ertebolle, Denmark.

APPENDIX 4: FOURTH MEETING, York (1987) (9-12 September)
1.   P. V. ADDYMAN: Fish out of water: An Archaeologists' view of 
2.   K. M. STEWART: Fish remains at Olduvai Gorge.
3.   W. VAN NEER: Fish remains from a Holocene site in Wadi 
     Howar, Sudan.
4.   V. L. BUTLER: Natural versus cultural salmon bones: a 
     preliminary assessment of the Dalles <> remains.
5.   B. GHALEB: Fish and Women on a Western Torres Strait Island, 
     Northern Australia.
6.   I. TAKACS: Fish exploitation in Hungary.
7.   M. ROSE: Prehistoric Fishing in the Aegean.
8.   E. ROSELLO & A. MORALES: Cul;tural typification of Spanish 
     pre-and protohistorical sites through the study of fish 
     assemblages: proposal of a new methodology of study.
9.   A. LENTACKER: The mesolithic Muge shell - middens of 
10.  A. MORALES & E.ROSELLO: Casual or intentional? Comments on 
     fish taxa skeletal representation from Spanish 
     archaeological settlements.
11.  E. S. WING: A Modern midden experiment.
12.  A. E. BULLOCK: Dispersal of Fish waste: a modern 
13.  S. COLLEY: Cooking fish on a fire: an experiment in 
     differential burning.
14.  A. K. G. JONES: Walking the cod.
     Spanish and Danish ichthyofaunal assemblages: patterns of 
     diversity and abundance commented from a paleocultural 
16.  D. HEINRICH: Some remarks on fish remains from late- and 
     postglacial sites near Hamburg.
17.  I. BODKER-ENGHOFF: Fishing at Mesolithic Bjornsholm, 
     Denmark, compared with the neighbouring settlement: the 
     Ertebolle locus classicus. Principally eel-fishing sites?.
18.  I. BODKER-ENGHOFF: Rare species of fish in the Mesolithic 
     Bjornsholm Shell-midden, Denmark - indicators of a warmer 
19.  L. JONSSON: Middle Mesolithic Fishing strategies and the 
     marine environment on the Swedish west coast.
20.  L. BARTOSIEWICZ: Size reconstruction of pike, Esox lucius, 
21.  I. TAKACS: Size reconstruction of catfish, Silurus glanis.
22.  M. COLBURN: Cranial osteology of Redcar sunfish.
23.  M. DUTTING & B. BEERENHOUT: Distribution analysis of the 
     fish remains of a Roman Castellum at Velsen, the 
24.  R. C. HOFFMANN: Pike (Esox lucius) in late Medieval Culture: 
     from illiterate empiricism to literate traditions.
25.  J. COY: Saxon evidence from the river Thames.
26.  D. SERJEANTSON: Fish Remains from a Monastic Site: St. 
     Albans Abbey, Hertfordshire, England.
27.  N. PAAP & M. SEEMAN,: Focussing on Fish eyes.
28.  D. BRINKHUIZEN: Some remarks on seasonal dating of fish 
     remains by means of growth ring analysis.
29.  A. ROJO: X-rays to differentiate vertebrae from the Gadidae 
30.  D. WARD: A machine for processing clay to extract fish 
31.  J. COY: Medieval documentation and the fish trade.
32.  R. NICHOLSON: Fish remains from excavations near the river 
     front at Newcastle, England.
33.  L. JONSSON: Osteological evidence of medieval fish trade in 
34.  R. KEMP: Fishing at Bylands Abbey, Yorkshire.
35.  J. DESSE & N. DESSE-BERSET: Use and exchange of osteometric 
     data for ichthofauna.
36.  E. S. WING: Comparative fish skeleton collections.

APPENDIX 5 - FIFTH MEETING, Stora Korno (1989) (5-9 September)

1.   L. JONSSON: An introduction to Stora Korno and its village 
     and the roots of an archaeoichthyologist.
2.   W. VAN NEER: Fish remains from the Middle Palaeolithic site 
     Bir Tarfawi (Eastern Desert, Egypt).
3.   N. BENECKE: Seasonal dating of fish remains from the 
     Hoabinian site Can-Cave (Vietnam).
4.   E. WING: Prehistoric Fishing in the West Indies.
5.   R. LARJE: Favourite fish dish of the Romans in Carthage.
6.   E. AURA TORTOSA: A preliminary report about marine 
     exploitation on the Andalusian coast: the Fish gorges from 
     the Cave of Nerja (Malaga, Spain).
7.   B. WILKENS: The importance of fishery in the economy of the 
     Fucino Basin (Italy) from Upper Palaeolithic to Neolithic 
8.   D. HEINRICH: Fish remains from Flem, a Stone Age settlement 
     at Skuloy, Norway.
9.   M. STERNBERG: La peche et la consommation du poisson sur le 
     site de Lattara (France, Herault) du IIIe au Iere s. AV. 
     J.C. .
10.  E. GEHASSE: Fish as salinity and tidal indicators at P14, a 
     late Neolithic- early Bronce age site in the Netherlands.
11.  L. BARTOSIEWICZ: Pre-depositional modifications on fish bone 
     from Hungarian Excavations.
12.  W. PRUMMEL: Fishing methods in Oldenburg (Holstein).
13.  P. LAHTIPERA: Big Ling from Lofoten area from Stone age and 
     Iron age.
14.  S. HAMILTON-DYER: Fish in the Tudor Naval diet.
15.  R. HOFFMANN: <> The operation of 
     fish ponds at La Perriere -sur-saune, Burgundy, 1338-1352.
16.  L. JONSSON: Violet is nice. Comparative bone collections and 
     the illustration of fish bones.
17.  I. TAKACS: Osteomorphological studies on great sturgeon 
     (Huso huso) from Hungary.
18.  L. JONSSON: The Holocene History of western Sweden, geology, 
     fishes, history of research.
19.  R. NICHOLSON: Burnt fish bones: what value to archaeology?
20.  A. K. G. JONES: How many fish bones do we need from a site?
21.  D. HEINRICH: Some remarks on the term <>, 
     especially <>.
22.  A. ROJO: x-Ray as a tool to identify the fish specimens of 
     subfossil vertebrate from archaeological sites.
23.  A. LEAK: An assessment of the value of the scales of the 
     grayling Thymallus thymallus (L.) to the archaeologist for 
     deriving information about the fish found in archaeological 
24.  A. LENTACKER: A Growthline study on the otoliths of 
     Argyrosomus regius.
25.  B. BERENHOUT: Velsen 1: Indications of water pollution in 
     Roman times.
26.  E. ROSELLO & A. MORALES: Castillo de Dona Blanca: fish 
     remains from the oldest phoenician site on the Iberian 
27.  M. ROSE: Polished otoliths from archaeological contexts.
28.  R. MaARNAY: Osteometrical analysis of Sparisoma cretense.
29.  E. ROSELLO & A. MORALES: Comparative osteomorphology of the 
     sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and round sardinella 
     (Sardinella aurita).
30.  S. STEN: Medieval and post-reformative fish finds from urban 
     contexts as indicators of fish trade.
31.  K. ROSENLUND: Computerized estimates of fish size based on 
     osteometric data: presentation of a program.

APPENDIX 6: SIXTH MEETING, Schleswig (1991) (3-7 September)

1.   V. VOGEL: Excavations in the ancient centre of Schleswig, 
     the archaeological background to the conference-town.
2.   A. BULLOCK: Evidence for the exploitation of fishes from 
     Tudor deposits and the Little Prickle excavations in 1989, 
     Surrey, England.
3.   I. BODKER-ENGHOFF: Fishing from medieval Holbaek.
4    A. ERVYNCK & W. VAN NEER: Fish remains in medieval castles 
     and towns (Flanders, Belgium): a preliminary survey.
5.   E. ROSELLO & A. MORALES: Cartuja: Fish remains from a late 
     medieval monastery in Seville (Spain).
6.   P. MOREL: Medieval fish remains from a site near Basel.
7.   N. IVANOVA: Fish remains from archaeological sites of the 
     northern part of the Black Sea Region.
8.   D. C. BRINKHUIZEN & E. ROSELLO: Laminak II: Marine fishes 
     within a paleolithic limnetic ichthyocenosis from the 
     Spanish Basque country.
9.   A. LENTACKER: Fish remains from Saltes (Huelva, Spain).
10.  L. JONSSON: Fish bone measurements. Gadiformes. Review and 
11.  W. VAN NEER: Fish size reconstructions: How accurate should 
     they be?
12.  D. HEINRICH: Fish remains from Durankulak and from some 
     other sites -are they biased by the excavator?
13.  J. STUDER: Fish and water: influence of a lake on the 
     distribution of ichthyological remains.
14.  M. MEZES & L. BARTOSIEWICZ: Fish bone preservation and fat 
15.  R. G. COOKE & J. BORT: A comparison between prehistoric and 
     modern artisanal fishing in a small estuarine embayment on 
     the Pacific coast of Panama.
16.  A. SANCHEZ MOSQUERA: Fishing patterns in the continental 
     coast of Ecuador.
17.  N. JUAN-MUNS: Fishing strategy in the Beagle channel: an 
     ethnoarchaeological approach.
18.  R. C. HOFFMANN: The craft of fishing Alpine lakes, ca A.D. 
19.  C. G. RODRIGUEZ SANTANA: The role of fishing in a 
     prehistoric settlement on the island of La Palma (Canary 
     Islands, Spain).
20.  B. BEERENHOUT: What conclusions can be drawn from mature 
     haddock bones in a neolithic coastal site in the 
21.  W. R. BELCHER: Fish utilization in the Harappan 
     civilization: a view from the type site of Harappa.
22.  D. SERJEANTSON; J. EVANS & S. WALES: Fish in latter 
     prehistoric Britain.
23.  L. JONSSON: Fish processing before salting and drying - 
     historical evidence from Scandinavia.
24.  Ma J. RODRIGO GARCIA: The paleoecological implications of 
     the presence of Melanogrammus aeglefinus (L., 1758) in the 
     transition Upper Pleistocene-Holocene levels in Nerja Cave 
     (Malaga, Spain).
     variability by geographic regions of some fish species in 
26.  A. BULLOCK: Cost tradeoffs of mesh size and sieving rate in 
     enrionmental processing.
27.  R. LARJE: Are dermestid beetles safe for fish bones?.
28.  D. C. BRINKHUIZEN: Pathologies and anomalies in recent and 
     subfossil fish bones.
29.  A. MORALES & W. VAN NEER: Abundance indexes as potential 
     discriminators of natural and anthropogenic 
30.  D. C. BRINKHUIZEN: The diet of recent otter (Lutra lutra) 
     from two regions in the northern Netherlands.
31.  W. PRUMMEL: Bird and sea mammal catching during fishing.
32.  B. IRVING: Possible evidence for Roman fish farming at 
     Nicopolis ad Istrum, Bulgaria.
33.  S. HAMILTON-DYER: Fish remains from Mons Claudianus -a 
     Graeco- roman site in the Eastern desert of Egypt.
34.  R. C. HOFFMANN: European subfossil carp (interim report).
35.  D. PATON & E. ROSELLO: A computerized procedure for the 
     classification of Mugilid remains from archaeological sites.
36.  Ch. RADTKE: Medieval fishing with <> in the 
37.  A. SANCHEZ MOSQUERA: The evolution of Ecuatorian 

APPENDIX 7: SEVENTH MEETING, Leuven (1993) (6-10 September)

1.   J. H. BARRETT: Bone weight and the intraclass comparison of 
     fish taxa.
2.   O. LERNAU & M. BEN-HORIN: Taphonomic curve and index: a 
     preliminary exploration of a new concept.
     preservation and recovery of fish remains in Central Chile.
4.   A. VON DEN DRIESCH: Hyperostosis in fish.
5.   F. J. MEUNIER & J. DESSE: Histological structure of 
     hyperostotic cranial remains of Pomadasys hasta 
     (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Haemulidae) from archaeological 
     sites of the Arabian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.
     size determination in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
7.   M. STERNBERG: Reconstitution de la taille de Dicentrarchus 
     labrax provenant de Lattes (Ileme Age du Fer-debut de la 
8.   J. DESSE & N. DESSE-BERSET: Osteometry and fishing 
     strategies at Cape Andreas Kastros (Cyprus, 8th millennium 
9.   N. DESSE-BERSET: Sturgeons of the Rhone during Protohistory 
     in Arles (6th-2nd century BC).
10.  O. LE GALL: Quelques remarques sur l'adaptation a court et a 
     long termes chez les poissons d'eau douce du sud de la 
11.  R. COOKE & G. TAPIA RODRIGUEZ: Marine and freshwater fish 
     amphidromy in a small tropical river on the Pacific coast of 
     Panama: a preliminary evaluation based on gill-net and hook-
     and-line captures.
12.  L. BARTOSIEWICZ; E. HERTELENDI & A. FIGLER: Seasonal dating 
     of hand-collected fish remains from a prehistoric settlement 
     in Hungary.
13.  W. R. BELCHER: A regional approach to fish remains and 
     seasonality in East Penobscot Bay, Maine.
14.  O. J. POLACO & A. F. GUZMAN: Fishes in some Spanish 
     sixteenth century chronicles.
15.  T. DE JONG: Fish consumption at Eindhoven Castle: 
     archaeological remains versus historical sources.
16.  R. C. HOFFMANN: Remains and verbal evidence of carp 
     (Cyprinus carpio) in medieval Europe.
17.  L. VAN BUYTEN: Donnees historiques sur le commerce de 
     poissons a Louvain (Brabant, Belgique) au 18eme siecle et 
     leur apport a l'archeozoologie.
18.  S. CROCKFORD: New archaeological and ethnographic evidence 
     of an extinct fishery for giant bluefin tuna (Thunnus 
     thynnus orientalis) on the Pacific Northwest Coast of North 
19.  W. R. BELCHER: Butchery practices and the ethnoarchaeology 
     of South Asian fisherfolk.
20.  A. M. CHOYKE & L. BARTOSIEWICZ: Angling with bones.
21.  W. Z. WENDRICH & W. VAN NEER: Preliminary notes on fishing 
     gear and fish at the late Roman fort at 'Abu Sha'ar 
     (Egyptian Red Sea coast).
22.  J. STUDER: Roman fish sauce in Petra, Jordan.
23.  D. C. BRINKHUIZEN: Some notes on fish remains from the late 
     16th century merchant vessel Scheurrak SO1.
24.  R. CERON-CARRASCO: The investigation of fish remains from an 
     Orkney farm mound.
25.  D. HEINRICH: Fish remains of two medieval castles and of an 
     urban context- a comparison.
26.  W. VAN NEER & A. ERVYNCK: New data on fish remains from 
     Belgian archaeological sites.
     Exploitation of grey triggerfish (Balistes carolinensis) by 
     the prehistoric inhabitants of Atlit-Yam, Israel: a 
     preliminary report.
28.  C. CARTWRIGHT: Preliminary results of the study of fish 
     remains from a 3rd millennium BC site, HD1, at Ra's al-Hadd, 
29.  K. C. MACDONALD & W. VAN NEER: Specialised fishing peoples 
     in the Later Holocene of the Mema Region (Mali).
30.  A. MORALES; E. ROSELLO & J. M. CANAS: Cueva de Nerja (prov. 
     Malaga): a close look at a twelve thousand year 
     ichthyofaunal sequence from southern Spain.
31.  A. LENTACKER: Fish remains from Portugal: preliminary 
     analysis of the Mesolithic shell-midden sites of Cabeco da 
     Amoreira and Cabeco da Arruda.
32.  B. IRVING: Identification to family or species in 
     ichthyofaunal studies. The importance of a filter where 
     osteologically similar species share the same habitat niche: 
     examples from the site of Saar, Bahrain.
33.  I. BODKER-ENGHOFF: Fishing from Denmark in the Ertebolle-
34.  H. HUSTER-PLOGMANN: Neolithic fish remains from the Zurich-
     lake region: difficulties and possibilities.
35.  N. JUAN-MUNS & C. RODRIGUEZ SANTANA: Sant Pere de Rodes 
     (Emporda, Catalonia, Spain): an analysis of the eighteenth 
     century ichthyofauna.
36.  W. VAN NEER; S. AUGUSTYNEN & T. LINKOWSKI: Daily growth 
     increments on fish otoliths as seasonality indicators on 
     archaeological sites: the tilapia from late palaeolithic 
     Makhadma in Egypt.

                              TABLE 1

Main features of the eight I.C.A.Z. Fish Remains Working Group 
meetings. Presentations in brackets refer to posters. A graphic 
representation of these data appears in Figure 1.

COPENHAGUE              16                 7               +
SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS        30                19               +
GRONINGEN               28                19 (5)           +
YORK                    38                35 (3)           -
STORA KORNO             32                31 (6)           +
SCHLESWIG               33                37 (5)           +
LEUVEN                  48                36 (6)           +
MADRID                  57                50 (12)          +

                             TABLE 2

The presentations at the various Fish Remains Working Group 
meetings arranged according to content. A graphic representation 
of these data appears in Figure 2.

MEETINGS              METHODS        REPORTS         OTHERS
COPENHAGUE               6              1               -
SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS         9              5               5
GRONINGEN                4              8               4
YORK                    17             10               9
STORA KORNO             14             11               6
SCHLESWIG               12             13              12
LEUVEN                  12             15               9
MADRID                  13             14              23

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